Filtering by: Program D

SG206A Program D
Jul
8
to Aug 2

SG206A Program D

Paper Media and Restoration Methods

3 Units
Instructor: Prof. Irene Zanella


COURSE STRUCTURE

Mornings: Theoretical Lectures 3 hours (SG206A)
Afternoons: 4 hours workshops (SG206B)
The course includes some study visits to local libraries and archives.

Course Description

REQUIREMENTS: Courses SG206A (theory) and SG206B (workshop) must be taken together.

This lecture course on the restoration of paper media aims to give an overview of the field, including instruction on the nature and history of paper, the traditional methods of paper making, printing, book binding, the processes of deterioration over time, and the various methods of conservation and restoration of paper, books and artwork on paper. The course corresponds with the workshop course SG206B.

Course Objectives

This course is aimed at two types of students: those planning to become restorers and those planning to manage paper-based resources in libraries, archives or museums. For those planning on a career as a restorer, this is a good introduction to the field to be followed up by further education. For those planning to manage paper-based resources, it is a good overview of the field and offers insight and experience on the safe storage and conservation of paper materials.

Summary of Lecture Content

Book and archival materials: their evolution in history

  • Clay, wax, metal, papyrus, animal skins

  • Paper

  • Structure of the book

    • Cover

    • Binding

    • Signature

    • Ruling

    • Writing

    • Ornamentation

  • Archival materials (documents, letters, posters, photographs etc.). Modern materials.

  • Art on paper (prints, aquarelles, drawings, collage, etc.).

  • Other materials besides paper, parchment, inks, seals, stamps, colors and adhesives.

  • Materials used in bookbinding: cardboard, decorated paper, fabrics, leather, strings, natural fibers etc.

Deterioration of books

  • Main causes for the deterioration of book materials

  • Terminology of book damage

  • Processes of deterioration

The chemistry of paper

  • Cellulose

  • Handmade paper

  • Modern paper

Paper restoration

  • Scheduling restoration

  • Process of restoration

    • Equipment

    • Techniques

    • Results

Special techniques of restoration:

  • Dry cleaning (with brush, rubber, scalpel)

  • Washing (if necessary, locally by using vacuum table, blotting papers, or using a screen)

  • Deacidification (aerosols)

  • Sizing/consolidation

  • Drying paper

  • Reintegration of tears and missing sections

  • Criteria for the choice of materials and techniques for reintegration. Coloring the paper

Materials used in restoration (paper, cardboard, adhesives), and their characteristics, properties and behavior

  • Observation with microscope and reflected, translucent and grazing light

  • Measuring pH

  • Testing to identify adhesives and additives used in paper during manufacturing

  • Techniques of restoration:

    • Dry cleaning

    • Washing

    • Deacidification

    • Sizing

    • Drying paper

    • Reintegration of tears and missing sections

    • Criteria for the choice of materials and techniques for reintegration

    • Flattening with presses and weights

Restoration of book bindings

  • Structure of the binding

  • Terminology of the components

  • History of various typologies of bindings (medieval, renaissance, modern)

  • Common damage in bookbinding

  • Techniques of restoration

  • Binding volumes

  • Disassembling a book

  • Signature

  • Technique for sewing the quires

  • Technique for making the headband

  • Cover in textile or leather

Restoration of artwork on paper

  • Print techniques

  • Xylography

  • Etching

  • Lithography

Methods to identify etching types

  • Techniques of drawing (charcoal, pencil, ink, etc.)

  • Techniques of tempera

  • Methods of restoring artwork on paper

  • Observation artworks on paper with microscope and reflected, translucent and grazing light

  • Measuring pH

  • Testing to identify adhesives and additives used in paper during manufacturing and mounting artworks.

Assignments

Workshop projects, reading assignments

READINGS

1. Dard Hunter, Papermaking, The History and Technique of an Ancient Craft, Dover,  New York, 1978.

2.Bamber Gascoigne, How to Identify Prints, A complete guide to manual and mechanical processes from woodcut to ink-jet, Thames and Hudson, 1998.

3. Bernard C. Middleton, The Restoration of Leather Bindings, Oak Knoll Press – The British Library, 1998



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SG206B Program D
Jul
8
to Aug 2

SG206B Program D

Paper Restoration Workshop

3 Units
Instructor Nella Poggi


COURSE STRUCTURE

Afternoons: 4 hours workshops
The course includes a study visit to Fabriano.

Course Description

REQUIREMENTS: Courses SG206A (theory) and SG206B (workshop) must be taken together.

This workshop course is an opportunity for students to gain hands-on experience on the basic skills required for restoration of paper media and to work on original archival materials. Students begin learning basic skills on the printed pages of an 18th century book of lesser value and then, having acquired sufficient skill, students  move on to restore unique manuscript documents from the city of San Gemini historic archives and from the historic archives of the Diocese of Narni (16th-19th centuries).

Course Objectives

This workshop aims to give students hands-on experience and the basic skills required for restoration of paper media, offering the opportunity to work on material from the city of San Gemini historic Archives and from the historic archives of the Diocese of Narni. The work done in the workshop is actual work conserving original materials (16th to 19th centuries) from these archives that becomes part of the students’ professional curriculum.

This course is aimed at two types of students: those planning to become restorers and those planning to manage paper-based resources in libraries, archives or museums. For those planning on a career as a restorer, this is a good introduction to the field to be followed up by further education. For those planning to manage paper-based resources, it is a good overview of the field and offer insight and experience on the safe storage and conservation of paper materials.

Summary of Workshop Content

Familiarization of manufacturing techniques of paper and bookmaking materials.

  • Observation with microscope and reflected, translucent and grazing light

  • Measuring pH

  • Testing to identify adhesives and additives used in paper during manufacturing

Restoration of books

  • Techniques of restoration:

    • Dry cleaning

    • Washing

    • Deacidification

    • Sizing

    • Drying paper

    • Reintegration of tears and missing sections

      • Criteria for the choice of materials and techniques for reintegration

    • Flattening with presses and weights

Restoration of book bindings

  • Disassembling a book

  • Signature

  • Technique for sewing the quires

  • Technique for making the headband

  • Cover in textile or leather

Restoration of artwork on paper

  • Observation of artworks on paper with microscope and reflected, translucent, and grazing light

  • Measuring pH

  • Testing to identify adhesives and additives used in paper during manufacturing and mounting artworks

  • Special techniques of restoration:

    • Dry cleaning (with brush, rubber, scalpel)

    • Washing (if necessary, locally by using vacuum table, blotting papers, or using a screen)

    • Deacidification (aerosols)

    • Sizing/consolidation

    • Drying paper

    • Reintegration of tears and missing sections

Assignments

Workshop projects, reading assignments

READINGS

1. Dard Hunter, Papermaking, The History and Technique of an Ancient Craft, Dover,  New York, 1978.

2.Bamber Gascoigne, How to Identify Prints, A complete guide to manual and mechanical processes from woodcut to ink-jet, Thames and Hudson, 1998.

3. Bernard C. Middleton, The Restoration of Leather Bindings, Oak Knoll Press – The British Library, 1998

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