SG204A Program C
May
27
to Jun 21

SG204A Program C

Introduction to the History and Craft of Book Bindings

3 Units
Instructor: Prof. Nikolas Sarris

COURSE STRUCTURE

Morning Lectures: Monday – Friday, 8:30 AM – 1:30 PM;
Workshop: Monday – Friday 3:00-7:00 PM;
Classroom: Book Binding studio

Course Description

No prerequisites required

Through a lecture and workshop format, this course introduces students to the history and evolution of Western bookmaking, from the handmade codex to modern industrialized book-making processes. Students craft 4 traditional books and in the process learn the materials, tools, sewing structures and assembly process of the various elements.

This course is designed primarily to provide knowledge and skills to people going into the field of book restoration and management of book resources, although it can also be useful to people going into the field of bookbinding and book design.  For those planning a career as book conservators, this is a good introduction to the field to be followed up by further education. For those planning to manage book collections or archives, it offers basic skills in analyzing the nature of bound material, understanding the state of conservation, best practices in handling, storage and conservation.

Students of the following subjects can find this program useful: Bookbinding, book conservation and restoration, library science, library management, archival sciences, management of rare book collections, book design, and history of technology.

Course Objectives

Student Learning Outcomes: Students who successfully complete this course will be able to:

  • Describe and define book components and writing supports

  • Identify and explain differences of book binding structures

  • Design and create four historical types of book bindings

  • Fold and prepare 20 sections or gatherings, each made of 4 bifolia, to produce four different book blocks

  • Place and space sewing stations onto the book spine

Summary of Lecture Content

Book components and terminology, writing support/media

Overview of bound written material

  • Tablets

  • Scrolls

  • Bamboo books

  • Palm leaf books

  • Quipu

  • Codex

Paper: Overview

  • Manufacture techniques

  • Woven

  • Machine made

Parchment: Overview

  • Manufacture techniques

  • Recognition of the animals

Decorative papers

  • Glue paper

  • Xylographic paper

  • Printed paper

  • Marbled paper

Writing area

  • Margins

  • Pagination

Inks

  • Carbon ink

  • Iron gall inks

  • Mixed inks

  • Printing inks

Text decoration

The book structure: general notions about book structure and terminology

The section: fly leaves, paste down, types: integral, separate (diagrams)

Sewing: unsupported: “Eastern” (Coptic-Islamic- Byzantine)

Sewing thread: vegetable fibers (linen, hemp, cotton), animal (silk, wool), synthetic

Supports: cord (single, double), tape, leather (tanned, alum tawed–strip single double, tongue, split, twisted)

Sewing techniques

  • Without supports: sewing with curved needle, chain stitch, kettle stitch

  • With support: with straight needle, on cords, single, double, all along, with compensation, herringbone sewing

  • On tape, all along, alternate French tape

  • On alum tawed single, split, etc.

  • Knots, when, where and how to make them

Spine shapes: Rounded and backed, flat

Spine lining: Materials: vegetal materials (cotton, linen cloths), Animals (leather, parchment), reused fragments

Techniques: over-all, transfer, comb, panel, slotted

Adhesives

  • Vegetable glue (starch)

  • Animal glue (rabbit, bovine, ovine, mixed)

  • Synthetics

  • How to recognize them and what and how to use them in conservation

End bands: Western/Eastern with or without cores

  • Material for the cores: vegetable cord, synthetic, animal (leather strips)

  • Material for sewing: vegetable threads (linen, cotton), synthetics

Techniques:

  • Primary sewing: number of cores (single or double), front or back bead, number of tie downs (structural or decorative)

  • Secondary sewing (decorative): number of cores, materials, techniques for sewing (chevron, etc.), laced or not laced to the boards.

Book edges—trimming of the edges

  • Techniques: trimming of the edges (with or without the boards, blade marks), with or without squares

  • Decoration of the edges: painted (sprinkled, painted, marbled, etc.), goffrated, gilded

Boards

  • Materials: wood, paper board (laminated using reused material, pulp board)

  • Techniques

Covering material

  • Materials: paper, leather, cloth/fabrics (vegetable, synthetic), metal manufacture techniques

  • Deterioration processes of tanned leather, alum tawed leather

  • Identification of the animal species, leather tinting

  • Leather skiving

Covering with adhesives: vegetal (starches), Animal (cow hide, pig hide), synthetic (PVA, EVA, etc.)

Turn-ins: sequence of turning the leather on the boards, different techniques in trimming the corners

Decoration of covers: Techniques: blind, gilded, etc. Tools for decoration

Fastenings

  • Styles and materials





Afternoon Workshops

In the workshop each student will create from scratch four blank page books using four historical bindings systems and original materials and tools. Some historic materials, such as parchment, which is expensive will be in part substituted with modern imitations.

Preparation of the book blocks

• Folding and preparation of the sections (20 sections or gatherings), each made of 4 bifolia, to produce four different book blocks

• How to place and space the sewing stations onto the spine

Description of Assignments

Reading list supplied with acceptance to the program.

Create from scratch four blank page books using four historical bindings systems and original materials and tools.

Grade Breakdown:

Term paper #1: 8-page paper on a topic to be assigned 20%
Exam: mixed format – quiz and essay questions. 20%
Book #1        15%
Book #2        15%
Book #3        15%
Book #4        15%

Grading scale:

94-100 = A 90-93 = A-
87-89 = B+ 84-86 = B
80-83 = B- 77-79 = C+
74-76 = C. 70-73 = C-
67-69 = D+. 64-66 = D
60-63 = D- Below 60 = F

View Event →
SG204B Program C
May
27
to Jun 21

SG204B Program C

Introduction to Preservation and Preventive Conservation of Books

3 Units

COURSE STRUCTURE

Morning Work in the Terni Dioceses Archives: Monday – Friday, 8:30 AM – 1:30 PM;
Afternoon: Lectures and Workshop 3:00-7:00 PM

Course Description

No prerequisites required

This course gives a theoretical overview of the field of book preventive conservation and restoration of books and archival material along with some practical experience in non-invasive preventive conservation. Covers historical intrusive restoration. Students describe and assess conservation conditions of archival material from the Terni Diocese Archives and implement non-intrusive preventive conservation measures on original material in the Archives (dry cleaning, re-shelving, box making).

The program is aimed at two types of students: those planning to become book conservators, and people that in various ways will be managing book or archival resources. For those planning for a career as book conservators, this is a good introduction to the field that will require further education. For those planning to manage book collections or archives, it will offer skills in analyzing the nature of bound material, understanding the state of conservation, best practices in handling, storage and conservation.

Students of the following subjects can find this program useful: Bookbinding, book conservation and restoration, library science, library management, archival sciences, management of rare book collections, book design, anthropology and history of technology.

Course Objectives

To give students an overview of the field of conservation and restoration of books and archival material along with some practical experience in non-invasive preventive conservation.

Student Learning Outcomes: Students who successfully complete this course will be able to:

  • Handle correctly books and archival documents, using book cradles and supports

  • Analyze storage condition and be able to suggest improvements

  • Describe and identify the deterioration process of book bindings and contributing factors

  • Prepare documentation records for conservation assessment

  • Perform dry cleaning

  • Make archivally safe storage boxes and protections

Summary of Lecture Content

Deterioration processes of organic materials in bindings

External factors:

  • Temperature

  • Humidity

  • Light

  • Mechanical damage (handling, wear and tear)

Internal factors:

  • Natural deterioration process of organic materials

  • Chemical interaction between materials

Prevention and Minimal Conservation Methods

  • Biocides and decontamination

  • Deacidification

  • Climate control

  • Temperature

  • Humidity

  • Light

Shelving, flat file drawers and other storage units

Storage Containers

  • Drop back spine box

  • Phase box

  • Book shoe

  • Four flap folder

Housing of fragments and mounting of single sheets

Option on how to treat pamphlet, single sheet collections and miscellaneous

Handling procedures for rare and delicate books

Digitization and how to minimize risk from handling documents:

  • Minimizing damage during photographic processes

  • State of the art digitization,

  • Affordable alternatives

Conservation techniques

Proposing different treatment options and estimating times

“Fit for purpose”, different approaches to conservation treatments related to different contexts

Documentation record and what to record (data sheets/images before, during and after conservation)

In situ repairs

Full conservation treatment of bound item (hypothetical full treatment):

1. Dry cleaning

2. Checking foliation

3. Dismantling

4. Washing

5. Deacidification

6. Re-sizing

7. Re-constitution of the book block

8. Sewing (preparation of the sewing material and sewing frame)

9. New spine lining

10. New end bands like originals

11. Treatment of the cover

12. Re-application of original cover


Afternoon Workshops

Analyzing and documenting book bindings (working with books from the local archives):
Features to document
State of conservation
Data sheets
Photographic documentation

Prevention and Minimal Conservation Methods
Biocides and decontamination
Deacidifiaction
Climate control

  • Temperature

  • Humidity

  • Light

Shelving, flat file drawers and other storage units
Storage Containers
Box making:

  • Drop back spine box

  • Phase box

  • Book shoe

  • Four flap folder

Housing of fragments and mounting of single sheets

Digitization of archival material

Participate in process of photographing archival material from the San Gemini Historic Archives, as part of the San Gemini Archives Digitization Project.

Description of Assignments

Reading list supplied with acceptance to the program.

Term paper #1: 8- page paper on a topic to be assigned
Term paper #2: 8- page paper on a topic to be assigned (graduate students only)
Final exam: mixed format – quiz and essay questions

Grade Breakdown:

Term paper(s) 35%
Final Exam 35%
Archival storage-making and work 30%

Contact Hours
Lectures: 40
Workshops: 40

Grading scale:

94-100 = A 90-93 = A-
87-89 = B+ 84-86 = B
80-83 = B- 77-79 = C+
74-76 = C. 70-73 = C-
67-69 = D+. 64-66 = D
60-63 = D- Below 60 = F

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SG209 Program A
May
27
to Jun 21

SG209 Program A

Sketching and Analyzing Historic Buildings

3 Units
Instructor: Prof. Max Cardillo
Instructor: Prof. Michele Benucci
Instructor: Elena Lorenzetti
E-mail: mcardillo@iirpsemail.org


COURSE STRUCTURE

Mornings: Lectures 1.5 hours (4 weeks)
Afternoons: 4 hours field work (2 weeks restoring stone work of the facade of the Church of San Carlo in San Gemini)

Course Description

USEFUL SKILLS: Freehand drawing, digital photography, Photoshop

USEFUL TOOLS: Laptop computers, digital camera, Photoshop software

The aim of the course is to develop intellectual skills in analyzing historic buildings. Participants will use freehand drawing as the main recording and documentation tool.

The course is composed of two parts: the morning classroom lectures and the afternoon sketching workshop.

The morning lectures focus on the nature of historic buildings both from a material and contextual point of view, so that students can understand buildings in order to analyze and read how they evolve through history. The afternoon workshop is the analysis and documentation of historic buildings in the medieval core of San Gemini, as part of a study of the urban evolution of the city.

In the workshop students receive basic instruction about free hand drawing techniques.

This course also includes a series of classes led by external lecturers who deal with various issues related to the field of conservation.

Course Objectives

The objectives for this course are for the participants to record and document buildings through sketching (free hand drawing) using pencil on paper. A good tool for recording, sketching is also a useful analytical tool because it is a slow, systematic process that forces the eye and the mind to observe in detail the building or object that is being recorded.

Summary of Lecture Content

Documenting Buildings

  • Graphic documentation of buildings

  • Basic sketching techniques

  • Written documentation

  • Thematic documentations

Historical and Cultural Analysis

  • Use of the building

  • Historical documentation of the building

  • The building’s evolution

  • Urban context

  • Archaeological evidence

  • Stylistic analysis of its art and architecture

  • Iconography and artwork

  • Building contents

State of Conservation

Structural condition

  • Weather enclosure

  • Condition of finished surfaces

  • Condition of mechanical systems

  • Condition of art and contents of building

Contextual Overview

History of San Gemini and the region

Physical Evolution of the city of San Gemini

Italian city typologies

  • Classical

  • Medieval

  • Renaissance

  • Industrial

Italian building types and styles

  • early Mediterranean

  • Etruscan

  • Hellenic

  • Greco-roman

  • Romanesque

  • Gothic

  • Renaissance

  • Baroque

  • Illuminism

  • Revivals

  • Industrialis

Traditional building structural systems

  • Traditional structural systems

  • Bearing wall

  • Post and lintel

  • Vaulted

  • Arch

  • Domes

  • Buttressing

  • Beams and trusses

  • Modern structures

  • Traditional building materials

    • Mud

    • Stone

    • Twigs

    • Brick

    • Mortars and cement

    • Wood

    • Iron and Steel

    • Glass

    • Various metals

    Traditional construction methods in Italy

    • Foundations systems

    • External walls

    • Floor systems

    • Roof systems

    • Interior and exterior finishes

    Building Systems

    • Heating

    • Lighting

    • Ventilation

    • Power

    • Water and sanitation

Workshop Field Work & Topics of Discussion

Field Work

Students will sketch and analyze the facades and evolution of a number of buildings in the medieval core of San Gemini. This work is part of a continuing study of the evolution of the city’s historic center.

5 elevation sketches

4 sketches of building details

1 perspective sketch

Report on the building sketches, summarizing a conclusion of analysis

Methods of describing buildings

Drawings

  • Plans

  • Sections

  • Elevations

  • Axonometry

  • Perspectiive

Text

Video

3D animation

Mixed Media

  • Drawings

  • Text

  • Photographs

Freehand  Drawing (sketching)

Tools

  • Pencils

  • Pens

  • Color pencils

  • Watercolors

  • Erasers

  • Horizon

  • Vanishing points

  • Construction lines

  • Margins

  • Drawing Layout

Transformation Patterns in Buildings

Core structure and typology

Expansions and additions

Patches

Reconstructions

Demolitions

Transformations

Seams: changes between phases

  • Material Structural systems

  • Construction pattern

  • Architectural style

  • Iconography

  • Foundation settlement

READINGS

H. Hearder, H D.P. Waley, A Short History of Italy. Cambridge University Press
Peter Connolly and  Hazel Dodge, The Ancient City. Oxford University Press
Jean-Pierre Adam, Roman Building : Materials and Techniques,Taylor & Francis

View Event →
SG203A Program B
May
27
to Jun 21

SG203A Program B

Analysis of Archaeological Ceramics

3 Units
Instructor: Prof. Elena Lorenzetti
elena@casalecydonia.com

COURSE STRUCTURE

Morning Lectures: Monday – Friday, 8:30 AM – 12:30 PM (2 weeks)

Classroom: San Giovanni Battista

  • Lectures are dedicated to the presentation of material, ceramic technologies and evolution of ceramics in Italy from the archaic to modern age.

Afternoon Workshop: Monday – Friday, 2:00 PM to 6:30 PM (2 weeks)

  • As part of the course, students will be working on a field project – a complete analysis of a Roman Age ceramic’s context through visual inspection, scientific testing, morphological analysis, drawing, and a written scientific analysis of the context.

  • There also will be an afternoon visit to the nearby ancient Roman City of Carsulae.

Schedule

 5/27 Sun

5/28 Mon


5/29. Tue


5/30. Wed


5/31 Thu


6/1 Fri

6/2. Sat

6/3 Sun

6/4. Mon


6/5. Tue


6/6 Wed


6/7. Thu



6/8. Fri

Arrival in San Gemini

Visit to  Roman city of Carsuale
Elena Lorenzetti  3:00PM-7:00PM

Studying pottery: goals, points of view, methods
From clay to pottery: raw materials, purifying, forming.

From clay to pottery: decorating, coating, firing.


Analyzing pottery: function, description.


Cataloging/drawing workshop

Free day

Free day

History of ceramic productions: archaic pottery


History of ceramic productions: hellenistic and roman pottery 1

History of ceramic productions: hellenistic and roman pottery 2

History of ceramic productions: medieval and modern pottery; History of ceramic productions: transport amphoras

Final report preparation: diagrams and charts

Brief Historical Overview of Umbria

cataloging/drawing workshop

cataloging/drawing workshop

cataloging/drawing workshop

Ceramics used in Architecture



cataloging/drawing workshop

cataloging/drawing workshop

cataloging/drawing workshop

cataloging/drawing workshop


Report writing

Course Description

No Prerequisites required

REQUIREMENTS: Courses SG 203B is complementary to this course and must be taken in the same session.

This course introduces students to the study of archaeological ceramics from multiple perspectives with a view toward acquiring the tools necessary for the full study of an archaeological context. Through lectures and hands-on workshops it examines both materials and production methods used over time in the Western world. Classes also study historical typologies of architectural ceramics and pottery that are found in Italian archaeological sites, analyzing archaeological artifacts from local excavations (6th C. BC – 20th C. AD) and learning to perform the following tasks: identifying and sorting ceramic sherds; performing typology analysis of “diagnostic” sherds (including analytical drawings and diagrams); and cataloging and documenting ceramic sherds.

Led by a practicing field archaeologist expert in Roman ceramics, this course forms the first half of the program Restoration and Analysis of Archaeological Ceramics. The lecture classes give an overview of ceramic technology and its evolution over time; it also explores the various typologies of pottery and architectural ceramics found in Italian archaeological sites. In the afternoon workshop students work with archaeological artifacts from local excavations (6th century BC – 20th century AD) and learn to perform analysis and documentation of sherds.

Course Objectives

The course studies materials and ceramic production methods, the history of ceramics and statistical methods of data elaborations.

The objectives of this course are to provide basic theoretical and practical knowledge and skills in the field of analysis of archaeological ceramics. For students planning a professional career as an archaeologist, this course is an introduction that will be a building block for further education. For students who plan to be involved in the process of conservation and historic preservation, this course offers a useful overview of the complementary issues and processes involved in the field.

Student Learning Outcomes:

Students who successfully complete this course will be able to:

  • Identify various ceramics, their use in antiquity, their physical properties, and choose the appropriate analyzing methods.

  • Catalogue, make diagrams and draw ancient ceramics.

Summary of Lecture Content

CERAMICS HISTORY AND PROCESS

Historical introduction to San Gemini and the region

• History of the evolution of the city of San Gemini

• Visit to the city of San Gemini

• Visit to the ancient city of Carsulae

Why study pottery

• Pottery in context: the multiple meaning of a ceramic sherd, points of view, goals, methods of cataloging.

Historic ceramic materials and technologies

• Nature of materials: physical and chemical properties, origin and historical use

• Clay forming: techniques, tools, functional shapes and their historical evolution

• Drying: the physical process, recognizing flaws

• Firing: from the clay to the pot, the chemical and physical process, flaws and results

• Decorating and coating: tools and materials, applycation techniques; historical evolution of the techniques

• Describing and drawing pottery: the description as analyzing method, the parts of a pot, the correct method for a complete and scientific documentation

Evolution of ceramics in Italy

• Archaic: from archaic coarse ware to bucchero pottery, the birth of Roman power

• Classical: from black gloss to Roman sigillatae, the slave production system and the history of Roman trade through pottery

• Medieval: from the archaic maiolica to the colorful production of Renaissance

• Early modern: from maiolica to industrial productions

Archaeological context and ceramic

• Inorganic and organic materials: nature and properties

• The environment of abandonment

• Ceramic decay: processes and morphology



Afternoon Workshop: Analysis of Archaeological Ceramics

Visual inspection

• Recognizing materials, techniques, marks and flaws

Scientific Testing

• Materials

• Dating

Analysis

• Morphology

• Clay forming

• Firing

• Materials

Clay

Inclusions

Tempers

Slips and glazes

• Stylistic analysis

Documentation and recording

• Drawings

• Diagrams

• Documentation

 

Description of Assignments

READINGS

Reading list supplied with acceptance to the program.

Grading

  • Participation/Field work: Complete various assignments that are given as part of the field project (50%).

  • Assignments: Term Paper #1: 8-page paper on the analyzed context (50%).

Grading scale:

94-100 = A. 90-93 = A-
87-89 = B+. 84-86 = B
80-83 = B- 77-79 = C+
74-76 = C. 70-73 = C-
67-69 = D+. 64-66 = D
60-63 = D- Below 60 = F

View Event →
SG203B Program B
May
27
to Jun 21

SG203B Program B

Restoration of  Archaeological Ceramics

3 Units
Instructor: Prof. Giulia Barella


COURSE STRUCTURE

Morning Seminars and Lectures: Monday – Friday, 8:30 AM – 12:30 PM (2 weeks)

Afternoon Workshop: Monday – Friday, 2:00 PM to 6:30 PM (2 weeks)

  • There also will be study visits to the nearby ancient Roman City of Carsulae and regional museums.

Course Description

No Prerequisites required

REQUIREMENTS: Courses SG 203A is complementary to this course and must be taken in the same session.

The second two weeks of the program Restoration and Analysis of Archaeological Ceramics is the course Restoration of Archaeological Ceramics.

The subject matter complements that in course SG203B (Analysis of Archaeological Ceramics) and is taught by an experienced restorer, a graduate of the ISCR restoration school, who specializes in ceramics restoration and conservation. In the lectures and workshop, students learn the theory and practice of restoring archaeological pottery, working on original archaeological materials on loan from the Soprintendenza Archeologica dell’Umbria.

In the workshop under the close supervision of their instructor, students clean, restore and document the pottery while they learn the following techniques: various methods of cleaning pottery sherds, the reassembly of pottery from surviving sherds, in-filling gaps left in the pottery after reassembly, the aesthetic treatment of the infilling for display and how to document the restoration procedure.

Course Objectives

This course aims to give basic theoretical knowledge and practical skills in the field of conservation of archaeological pottery.

Summary of Lecture Content

Philosophical, cultural and institutional framework for restoration in Italy

• Theory and philosophy of restoration

• Short history of restoration and conservation

• Institutional setting and support for restoration

Ceramic conservation

The methodological approach

Documentation of restoration work

• Photographic, textual and graphic methods

• Examples and lab practice

Cleaning techniques and materials

• Types of dirt and foreign materials

• Mechanical and chemical methodologies and instruments

• Safety measures

• Materials from previous restorations

Consolidation techniques and materials

• Advantages and limits of the procedure

• Consolidant requirements

• Different application methods

Fragments search methodology

Joining techniques and materials

• Adhesive general requirements

• Adhesive choice

• Thermosetting/thermoplastic resins: differences, application methods, safety measures

• Useful supplies for bonding

Gap filling, surface protection and supports

• Thoughts and issues around gap fillings

• Characteristics and requirements of the materials

• Most commonly used fillers in Italy

• Application techniques, refinishing, painting

Some case studies of interesting ceramic restorations

• Big vessels, statues, etc.

Conservation in the field

• Roles of conservator during excavation

• Field conservation lab

• Lifting techniques

• Micro-excavation

• Temporary protection materials

• Packing and storage (short/long time), materials and methods

Ceramic decay

• Decay processes and damages

• Different environments (before and after the abandonment)

• Agents of decay

• Physical damage

• Chemical factors and processes

Handling and moving objects of art

• Guidelines and techniques to handle and lift delicate objects

• Useful devices

Museum and storage environments

• Preventive conservation in museums

• Agents of deterioration in museums

• Object locations

Packing and display materials

• Rigid and semi-rigid materials (natural and synthetic)

• Flexible and elastic materials (natural and synthetic)

• Buffering, scavenger and monitoring devices

Site study visits

• Visit to local museums and restoration laboratory

Afternoon Workshop: Analysis of Archaeological Ceramics

Visual inspection

• Recognizing materials, techniques, marks and flaws

Scientific Testing

• Materials

• Dating

Analysis

• Morphology

• Clay forming

• Firing

• Materials

Clay

Inclusions

Tempers

Slips and glazes

• Stylistic analysis

Documentation and recording

• Drawings

• Diagrams

• Documentation

Description of Assignments

READINGS

Assigned reading, written assignment

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SG201 Program A
May
27
to Jun 21

SG201 Program A

Restoration of Traditional Masonry Buildings in Italy

3 Units
Instructor: Prof. Nikolas Vakalis
Assistant: Dr. Emanuela Grifoni
E-mail: nikosvakalis@libero.it


COURSE STRUCTURE

Mornings: Lectures 1.5 hours (4 weeks)
Afternoons: 4 hours field work (2 weeks restoring stone work of the facade of the Church of San Carlo in San Gemini)

Course Description

This course introduces students to restoration of historic buildings in Italy. It explores the traditional materials and techniques used to create the buildings and the artwork that is integral to their structure, it also examines the various agents of deterioration that, over time, damage the materials and the different approaches to their restoration and conservation.

The course investigates such traditional building materials as stone, mortars, cements, architectural ceramics, wood and architectural metals. It also examines the materials and methods used in the artwork and decorations, such as fresco painting, secco murals, painting on wood panels, gilding, stone and wood sculpture, decorative plasters, mosaics and stained glass.

The course combines theoretical learning in the classroom with a hands-on experience in the field. As part of the course students will be working on our present field project: the restoration of the Church of Santa Maria Incertis (San Carlo) a 13th century church in San Gemini.

Course Objectives

The objectives for this course are to introduce students planning a career in restoration to the field, and to offer a useful overview of the process and problematic examples of restoration to students involved in other aspects of the process of conservation and historic preservation. This course is aimed at students of Restoration and Conservation, Historic Preservation, Architecture, Art, Art History, Cultural History, Engineering, Anthropology, Archaeology and Museum Studies.

Summary of Lecture Content

Porous Materials

Natural Stones

  • Geological Formation

Igneous rocks

Sedimentary rocks

Metamorphic rocks

  • Stone carving technology

Materials

Tools

Working processes

  • Traditional Uses in Architecture

  • Traditional Uses in Art

  • Decay Processes

Water/Moisture

Wind

Sun/Heat

Pollution

Biological attacks (Bio-deterioration)

Anthropic causes

  • Preservation/Conservation, Restoration and maintenance (prevention)

Methods of restoration

Consolidation

Joining parts

Cleaning

Chemical-mechanical action (misting water spray)

Filling gaps

Protection

Artificial Stones: Plaster and Mortars

Binders

Gypsum

Aerial lime

Hydraulic lime

Cement

  • Aggregates

Natural sands

Crushed stones

Pozzolana

Artificial

Crushed bricks and others

Afternoon Workshop

Restoring the façade of the Oratory of San Carlo in San Gemini, a small church built in phases from the 13th to the 15th centuries. The work will include:

  • Treating stone with biocide

  • Stone cleaning

  • Consolidation of stone where necessary

  • Removal of inappropriate mortars

  • Pointing stone work with hydraulic lime mortars

  • Treatment of stone with sealers

  • Applying washes where necessary

Description of Assignments

READINGS: Reading list supplied with acceptance to the program.

Field work: Complete various assignments that are given as part of the field project
Term paper #1: 8 page paper on a topic to be assigned
Term paper #2: 8 page paper on a topic to be assigned (graduate students only)
Exam: mixed format – quiz and essay questions

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FT1 Intersession Field Trip
Jun
23
to Jul 2

FT1 Intersession Field Trip

Preservation Tour: Siena, Florence and Rome

1 Unit
Instructor: Cornelia Danielson
e-mail: mcardillo@iirpsemail.org

Course Description

The field trip professor is an art historian holding a doctorate from Columbia University in New York with a specialization in 16th Century Florentine Studies and a particular interest in Medici-related projects and their contextual background. Lectures are informal and on-site. In each city, specific monuments have been chosen which represent the particular characteristics of that city.

Siena: Visits include the Palazzo Pubblico, the Duomo, and the Ospedale di Santa Maria della Scala. In Florence, the Cappella Brancacci, Orsanmichele, the Churches of San Miniato, San Salvatore al Monte, Santo Spirito, the exteriors of Palazzo Pitti, the Palazzo Vecchio, the Uffizi, the Duomo and Baptistry and the major piazzas are focused on.

Rome: Visits include the Colosseum, the Forum, the Palatine Hill and the Pantheon for Repubblican and Imperial Rome; for Renaissance Rome: Bramante’s Tempietto, Michelangelo’s Capitoline Hill and a typical Renaissance villa  (Villa Medici, Villa Giulia or Villa Farnesina). Baroque Rome is represented by works of Caravaggio, Bernini, Borromini and Pietro da Cortona.

Visits to all monuments are subject to change and are determined by the priority of the scheduling of appointments to the various restoration sites and laboratories. Visits to restoration sites and laboratories which are subject to change from year to year are arranged by Prof. Nikolas Vakalis. The students are accompanied by Prof. Danielson.

Course Objectives

This 10 day field trip seminar combines two main objectives. The first is to visit three major Italian cities: Medieval Siena, Renaissance Florence and Imperial and Baroque Rome and to place the urban scheme, art and architecture of each city within its historical, socio-economical, and religious context.  The aim of these visits is to provide future restorers and conservators with a model of the type of contextual framework that should be created each time they approach a work which is to be restored. The second objective is to visit major laboratories and sites of restoration in each city to provide the unique experience of coming in to contact not only with major works of art under restoration but also with their restorers and conservators.  Students in the past have visited the Opificio delle Pietre Dure in Florence seeing major works by Fra Angelico (the Palla di San Marco), Raphael (Portrait of Pope Leo X), and Ghiberti (the Florentine Baptistry bronze doors); the sculpture restoration laboratories of the Vatican Museum, including a behind the scenes visit to view the work-in-progress conservation of the sculptures in the pope’s private Vatican Gardens. In Siena students have climbed scaffolding to view within inches Simone Martini’s magnificent Maesta’ in the Palazzo Pubblico and similarly in Rome, during the restoration of Bernini’s Triton Fountain.

This course will be of interest to students of all disciplines having to do with the history, restoration and conservation of the world’s artistic heritage.

Course Structure

This is an intensive 10-day field trip which takes place during Italy’s hottest time of year. Temperatures in late June and July may already register in the 90’s. Mornings begin early to avoid the mid-day heat. Ample time is allowed for lunch breaks. Blocks of time are left in each city for students to explore museums and monuments on their own but it is necessary for them to make reservations ahead of time to visit particularly crowded museums such as the Academia, the Uffizi, the Vatican Museum and the Villa Borghese. It is advised to drink lots of water, wear comfortable shoes and clothes, hats and dark glasses. Be prepared for lots of walking. Do not wear extreme clothes: mini skirts or short shorts. Always bring a scarf to cover bare shoulders and legs, required for entering all churches in Roman Catholic Italy

READING: No required reading but a bibliography is provided and it is suggested that students read at least one book on each city, determined by their particular interests.

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SG207 Program E
Jul
8
to Aug 2

SG207 Program E

Restoration: Theory, Ethics and Issues

2 Units
Instructor: Prof. Max Cardillo


COURSE STRUCTURE

Mornings: Lectures 1.5 hours (4 weeks)

Course Description

This course examines the purpose and goals of preservation. Beyond technical issues, lie matters of philosophy, ethics, cultural values  and “best practices” that influences the work of restorers. These issues are very important, because misguided restoration work is a major cause of destruction or falsification of an irreplaceable cultural heritage. In a field where there are no simple answers, this course, will teach students to assess the goals and values that guide and influence restoration and conservation.

The course is aimed primarily at students of art history, art, architecture, restoration, anthropology, archaeology, museum conservation, and management of cultural heritage.

Course Objectives

Summary of Lecture Content

Transformation time and memory

• Entropy and reorganization

• Time as a measure of entropy

• Present past and future

• Memory and foresight

• Types of memory

• Cultural heritage as collective memory

• Restoration preserves memory

• Curators edits of collective memory

What is the value of things we preserve

• Aesthetics

• Historic

• Religious

• Symbolic

• Scientific

• Functional

Transformations done to cultural objects

  • Recycling and collage of old material

  • Anastilosis

  • Restoration

  • Conservation

  • Additions

  • Completions

  • Adaptive reuse

  • Substitutions

Types of Restoration

  • Artistic

  • Artistic in style

  • Scientific

Motivations behind restoration

  • Preservation of cultural heritage

  • Commercial or economic interest

  • Institutional policy

  • Nationalism

  • Religious motives

  • Obsessive behavior

Ethics of restoration

  • Veracity and transparency

  • Reversibility

  • Preserving multiple values of objects

  • Cultural heritage as collective human property

  • Owners as custodians of the collective property

Wholeness

  • When is art or an object whole

    • Original intent of the artist

    • Material integrity

    • Cultural integrity

    • Historical integrity

    • Contextual integrity

  • Degradation of integrity

  • Potential unity of the (Cesare Brandi)

  • Fragmentation

Phases of restoration

  • Consolidation

  • Cleaning

  • Preservative treatments

  • Presentation and Integration

Cleaning

  • Evaluating necessity

  • Does dirt have historical value

  • Dirty patch

  • Cleaning to last layer of dirt

Presentation and Integration of art (retouching)

  • Modulation of lacunae’s tonality

    • Monochromatic

    • Chromatic modulation

    • Chromatic abstraction

  • Integration

    • Mimetic

    • Semi-mimetic

  • Tratteggio (rigatino)

  • Puntini

  • Chromatic selection

  • Down toned or simplified retouching

  • Sculpture, buildings, books, ceramics

Context

  • Spatial

  • Cultural

  • Historical

  • Perception

  • Psychology

Space of Paintings

  • Pictorial plane

  • Pictorial space

  • Viewers space

Space of Sculpture

  • Mass of the sculpture (negative space)

  • Surface of the sculpture

  • Space of action of the sculpture

  • Space of the viewer

  • Space transformed by the sculpture

Space of a building

  • External space of the building

  • Internal space of the building

  • Mass of the building (Negative space)

  • Viewer’s path

Frames, borders, pedestals, covers, margins

  • Protective edge

  • Psychological or visual transition

Museums

  • Conservation

  • Accessibility to the public

  • Decontextualization

  • Contextualization

  • Collections

Copies

  • Substitutive

  • Reconstructions

  • Pedagogic

  • Revivals

Completions of Unfinished Objects

  • Functionality

  • Status of unfinished condition

Strategies of Preservation

  • Preservation laws

  • Restoration guidelines

  • Cultural risk maps

  • Dispersion of cultural heritage

Cultural property

  • Private

  • Heritage of local communities

  • National heritage

  • World heritage

Descriptions of Assignments

READINGS: Cesare Brandi, Theory of Restoration ICCROM

DESCRIPTION OF ASSIGNMENTS:

Class discussion of reading material
Term paper 1: 5 page paper on a topic to be assigned
Term paper 2: 5 page paper on a topic to be assigned (only graduate students)

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SG208A Program E
Jul
8
to Aug 2

SG208A Program E

Traditional Painting: Materials, Methods, and Issues in Conservation

2 Units
Instructor: Prof. Nikolas Vakalis
E-mail: nikosvakalis@libero.it


COURSE STRUCTURE

Mornings: Lectures 1.5 hours (SG208A)
Afternoons: 4 hours workshop (SG208B)

Course Description

This course gives an in-depth understanding of traditional painting materials and techniques commonly used in Italy from the Classical Antiquity, to the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Since this course is aimed primarily at people planning to study art conservation, the course also explores factors that hasten deterioration of the materials and the different approaches to their restoration. Four visiting lecturers will present various topics of interest to painted artifacts and restoration case studies (frescoes, panel paintings, canvas paintings).

This course could be of interest to students of fine arts, art restoration, painting, art history, art management and museum studies.

Course Objectives

Summary of Lecture Content

Part 1. Traditional Methods and Materials in Painting

Supports

  • Masonry

  • Wood

  • Canvas

Paint

  • Pigments (organic and inorganic)

  • Natural

  • Artificial

Binders

Varnishes and Glazes

 

Fresco painting

  • Materials

    • Gypsum

    • Lime

    • Lime cycle and chemistry

      • Calcination

      • Carbonation

      • Slaking and seasoning

    • Aggregates (natural and artificial, inert and hydraulic)

      • Sands

      • Marble dust

      • Pozzolana

      • Brick dust

    • Materials

      • Arriccio

      • Intonachino

      • Pictorial layer

Fresco tradition

  • Ancient Roman

    • Pontata

    • Polishing

  • Byzantine

  • Renaissance

  • Giornata

Sgraffito

Painting on wood board using 14th century methods

  • Board structure

  • Board preparation

  • Incamottatura

  • Gesso rendering

  • Pigments and tempera binding

Gilding

  • Gouache gilding method (bolo)

  • Burnishing

  • Mordant gilding method

Oil painting on canvas

  • Stretchers

  • Canvas

  • Filler

  • Ground

  • Pigments and oil binders

  • Varnishes

Deterioration Causes

Crushed stones

Pozzolana

Artificial

Crushed bricks and others

Afternoon Workshop

See Syllabus SG208B

Description of Assignments

READINGS: Cenino Cenini, The Craftsman’s Handbook.

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SG208B Program E
Jul
8
to Aug 2

SG208B Program E

WorkshopTraditional Painting: Materials and Methods

2 Units
Instructor: Prof. Nikolas Vakalis
E-mail: nikosvakalis@libero.it


COURSE STRUCTURE

Afternoons: 4 hours workshop (SG208B)

Course Description

Requirements: Courses SG208A (theory) and SG208B (workshop) must be taken together.

This painting workshop aims to give students a better understanding of traditional Italian painting materials and painting techniques by giving them a chance to realize materially a series of paintings using these methods. This workshop is not an art class, although good aesthetics are appreciated. The main objective of the course is for students to understand well the painting process, the difficulties and limitations associated with each technique and how they influence both the aesthetics and the image making process.

The knowledge acquired in this course can be of interest to students of art restoration, painting, art history, art management and museum studies.

Course Objectives

Summary of Workshop Content

Part 1. Renaissance Fresco Technique

Support, preparation

  • Ariccio

  • Intonachino

  • Image transfer

    • Pounce

    • Stylus

  • Painting

    • Pigments

      • Natural

      • Synthetic

    • Paint preparation

    • Brushes

  • Secco

  • Glazes

  • Cleanup methods

Part 2. Sgraffito

  • Support, preparation

    • Arriccio

    • Base black coat

    • White surface coat

  • Image transfer

    • Pounce

    • Stylus

  • Scraping

Part 3. Painting on Wood Board using 14th Century Methods

  • Board preparation

    • Sanding

    • Gesso rendering

  • Paint

    • Pigments

    • Tempera binding and emulsifier

  • Glazes and varnishes

  • Gilding

    • Bolo

    • Gold foil

    • Burnishing

Part 4. Oil Painting on Canvas using 17th Century Methods

  • Prepare stretchers

  • Install canvas

  • Canvas rendering

  • Paint

    • Pigments

    • Oil binders and emulsifiers

    • Brushes

    • Cleanup methods

  • Glazes

  • Varnishes

Description of Assignments

Workshop Projects and Assigned Reading

READINGS: Cenino Cenini, The Craftsman’s Handbook.

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SG206A Program D
Jul
8
to Aug 2

SG206A Program D

Paper Media and Restoration Methods

3 Units
Instructor: Prof. Irene Zanella


COURSE STRUCTURE

Mornings: Theoretical Lectures 3 hours (SG206A)
Afternoons: 4 hours workshops (SG206B)
The course includes some study visits to local libraries and archives.

Course Description

REQUIREMENTS: Courses SG206A (theory) and SG206B (workshop) must be taken together.

This lecture course on the restoration of paper media aims to give an overview of the field, including instruction on the nature and history of paper, the traditional methods of paper making, printing, book binding, the processes of deterioration over time, and the various methods of conservation and restoration of paper, books and artwork on paper. The course corresponds with the workshop course SG206B.

Course Objectives

This course is aimed at two types of students: those planning to become restorers and those planning to manage paper-based resources in libraries, archives or museums. For those planning on a career as a restorer, this is a good introduction to the field to be followed up by further education. For those planning to manage paper-based resources, it is a good overview of the field and offers insight and experience on the safe storage and conservation of paper materials.

Summary of Lecture Content

Book and archival materials: their evolution in history

  • Clay, wax, metal, papyrus, animal skins

  • Paper

  • Structure of the book

    • Cover

    • Binding

    • Signature

    • Ruling

    • Writing

    • Ornamentation

  • Archival materials (documents, letters, posters, photographs etc.). Modern materials.

  • Art on paper (prints, aquarelles, drawings, collage, etc.).

  • Other materials besides paper, parchment, inks, seals, stamps, colors and adhesives.

  • Materials used in bookbinding: cardboard, decorated paper, fabrics, leather, strings, natural fibers etc.

Deterioration of books

  • Main causes for the deterioration of book materials

  • Terminology of book damage

  • Processes of deterioration

The chemistry of paper

  • Cellulose

  • Handmade paper

  • Modern paper

Paper restoration

  • Scheduling restoration

  • Process of restoration

    • Equipment

    • Techniques

    • Results

Special techniques of restoration:

  • Dry cleaning (with brush, rubber, scalpel)

  • Washing (if necessary, locally by using vacuum table, blotting papers, or using a screen)

  • Deacidification (aerosols)

  • Sizing/consolidation

  • Drying paper

  • Reintegration of tears and missing sections

  • Criteria for the choice of materials and techniques for reintegration. Coloring the paper

Materials used in restoration (paper, cardboard, adhesives), and their characteristics, properties and behavior

  • Observation with microscope and reflected, translucent and grazing light

  • Measuring pH

  • Testing to identify adhesives and additives used in paper during manufacturing

  • Techniques of restoration:

    • Dry cleaning

    • Washing

    • Deacidification

    • Sizing

    • Drying paper

    • Reintegration of tears and missing sections

    • Criteria for the choice of materials and techniques for reintegration

    • Flattening with presses and weights

Restoration of book bindings

  • Structure of the binding

  • Terminology of the components

  • History of various typologies of bindings (medieval, renaissance, modern)

  • Common damage in bookbinding

  • Techniques of restoration

  • Binding volumes

  • Disassembling a book

  • Signature

  • Technique for sewing the quires

  • Technique for making the headband

  • Cover in textile or leather

Restoration of artwork on paper

  • Print techniques

  • Xylography

  • Etching

  • Lithography

Methods to identify etching types

  • Techniques of drawing (charcoal, pencil, ink, etc.)

  • Techniques of tempera

  • Methods of restoring artwork on paper

  • Observation artworks on paper with microscope and reflected, translucent and grazing light

  • Measuring pH

  • Testing to identify adhesives and additives used in paper during manufacturing and mounting artworks.

Assignments

Workshop projects, reading assignments

READINGS

1. Dard Hunter, Papermaking, The History and Technique of an Ancient Craft, Dover,  New York, 1978.

2.Bamber Gascoigne, How to Identify Prints, A complete guide to manual and mechanical processes from woodcut to ink-jet, Thames and Hudson, 1998.

3. Bernard C. Middleton, The Restoration of Leather Bindings, Oak Knoll Press – The British Library, 1998



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SG206B Program D
Jul
8
to Aug 2

SG206B Program D

Paper Restoration Workshop

3 Units
Instructor Nella Poggi


COURSE STRUCTURE

Afternoons: 4 hours workshops
The course includes a study visit to Fabriano.

Course Description

REQUIREMENTS: Courses SG206A (theory) and SG206B (workshop) must be taken together.

This workshop course is an opportunity for students to gain hands-on experience on the basic skills required for restoration of paper media and to work on original archival materials. Students begin learning basic skills on the printed pages of an 18th century book of lesser value and then, having acquired sufficient skill, students  move on to restore unique manuscript documents from the city of San Gemini historic archives and from the historic archives of the Diocese of Narni (16th-19th centuries).

Course Objectives

This workshop aims to give students hands-on experience and the basic skills required for restoration of paper media, offering the opportunity to work on material from the city of San Gemini historic Archives and from the historic archives of the Diocese of Narni. The work done in the workshop is actual work conserving original materials (16th to 19th centuries) from these archives that becomes part of the students’ professional curriculum.

This course is aimed at two types of students: those planning to become restorers and those planning to manage paper-based resources in libraries, archives or museums. For those planning on a career as a restorer, this is a good introduction to the field to be followed up by further education. For those planning to manage paper-based resources, it is a good overview of the field and offer insight and experience on the safe storage and conservation of paper materials.

Summary of Workshop Content

Familiarization of manufacturing techniques of paper and bookmaking materials.

  • Observation with microscope and reflected, translucent and grazing light

  • Measuring pH

  • Testing to identify adhesives and additives used in paper during manufacturing

Restoration of books

  • Techniques of restoration:

    • Dry cleaning

    • Washing

    • Deacidification

    • Sizing

    • Drying paper

    • Reintegration of tears and missing sections

      • Criteria for the choice of materials and techniques for reintegration

    • Flattening with presses and weights

Restoration of book bindings

  • Disassembling a book

  • Signature

  • Technique for sewing the quires

  • Technique for making the headband

  • Cover in textile or leather

Restoration of artwork on paper

  • Observation of artworks on paper with microscope and reflected, translucent, and grazing light

  • Measuring pH

  • Testing to identify adhesives and additives used in paper during manufacturing and mounting artworks

  • Special techniques of restoration:

    • Dry cleaning (with brush, rubber, scalpel)

    • Washing (if necessary, locally by using vacuum table, blotting papers, or using a screen)

    • Deacidification (aerosols)

    • Sizing/consolidation

    • Drying paper

    • Reintegration of tears and missing sections

Assignments

Workshop projects, reading assignments

READINGS

1. Dard Hunter, Papermaking, The History and Technique of an Ancient Craft, Dover,  New York, 1978.

2.Bamber Gascoigne, How to Identify Prints, A complete guide to manual and mechanical processes from woodcut to ink-jet, Thames and Hudson, 1998.

3. Bernard C. Middleton, The Restoration of Leather Bindings, Oak Knoll Press – The British Library, 1998

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