Program A : Touching the Stones, Restoration and Analysis of Historic Buildings

San Gemini Preservation Studies 2020
Session 1: June 1 – June 26 (4 weeks)
Location: San Gemini, Italy

Program Information

Students are required to take both courses, participating in the lectures in the morning and the field projects in the afternoon. In the four weeks of the program, field project participation is split in two equal blocks of time: The first is working on the material restoration of the façade of the church of San Carlo; the second is sketching and documenting various buildings or historical features of the town of San Gemini.

This program is intended for students planning to be involved with building conservation and restoration, architecture, art history, civil engineering, art, restoration, field history, management of cultural heritage, anthropology and history of technology.

Field Projects associated with this Program:

  • Restoration of the masonry façade of the oratory of San Carlo (13th century)

  • Analysis of medieval buildings in San Gemini as part of an urban study of the city


Restoration of Traditional Masonry Buildings in Italy

Course 1
Instructor Prof. Nikolas Vakalis
SG 201 (3 Units)

The first course deals with the restoration of masonry buildings in Italy and focuses on traditional building materials such as stone, brick, stucco and mortars out of which structures, decorations and fixed art are made. This course involves lectures in the morning and a restoration workshop in the afternoon. During the lectures students are instructed on the nature of the building materials, how they are used, how they age and deteriorate over time, the agents of deterioration, and various approaches to their restoration. In the afternoon students participate in a workshop (a total of at least 12 work days) directly restoring the masonry façade of the Oratory of San Carlo, a 13th century church in San Gemini.


Sketching and Analyzing Historic Buildings

Course 2
Instructor Prof. Max Cardillo
SG 209 (3 Units)

In this course students learn how to identify and analyze historic buildings and their cultural context. The lecture classes develop skills by familiarizing students with the following topics: the evolution of the Italian city, building typologies, architectural styles, traditional building materials, structural systems, building components and construction methods. The afternoon sketching workshop offers the opportunity to develop analytical skills by observing and documenting historic structures in San Gemini’s medieval core. The hand drawing exercise is not only a gratifying personal experience, it is also a valuable tool (portable and low tech) for guiding the mind through a process of methodical observation and thinking.  


Past Architectural Restoration Projects by SGPS:

Program B : Restoration and Analysis of Archaeological Ceramics

San Gemini Preservation Studies 2020
Session 1: June 1 – June 26 (4 weeks)
Location: San Gemini, Italy

Program Information

This program aims to give basic theoretical and practical knowledge and skills in the field of analysis and conservation of archaeological ceramics. These two courses offer a rare opportunity for participants to be trained in both disciplines by experienced field archaeologists and conservators while working with original archaeological artifacts.

These courses are aimed at two types of student: those planning to become professional restorers or archaeological specialists of ceramics, and those planning to manage archaeological material at excavations or museums. For those planning on a career as a ceramic restorer or specialist, this is a good introduction to the field that will require further education. For those planning to manage archaeological material, it is a good overview of the field that offers insight and experience on how to manage, document and safely store archaeological ceramic material.

Students of the following subjects would find this program useful: archaeology, anthropology, art history, art restoration, field history, management of cultural heritage, museum studies, classical studies and history of technology.

Students participating in this program are required to take part in all courses and field projects in the program.

Field Projects associated with this Program:

  • Analysis and conservation of classical and medieval pottery from the Soprintendenza Archeologia, Belle Arti e Paesaggio dell’ Abruzzo – Department Of National Heritage and Cultural Activities of the Abruzzo Region

  • Analysis and conservation of classical and medieval pottery from the excavation of the Roman city of Carsulae

  • Excavation of the Roman city of Carsulae

sgps Research2.jpg

Analysis of Archaeological Ceramics

Course 1
Instructor Prof. Elena Lorenzetti
SG 203A (3 Units)

Led by a practicing field archaeologist expert in Roman ceramics, this course forms the first half of the program. The lecture classes give an overview of traditional ceramic technology and its evolution going from its beginning to the 19th Century. It examines both materials and production methods used over time in the Western world. Classes also study historical typologies of architectural ceramics and pottery that are found in Italian archaeological sites. In the afternoon workshop, students analyze archaeological artifacts from local excavations (6th C. BC – 20th C. AD) and learn to perform the following tasks: identifying and sorting ceramic sherds, performing typology analysis of “diagnostic” sherds, including analytical drawings and diagrams, and cataloging and documenting ceramic sherds.


Restoration of Archaeological Ceramics

Course 2
Instructor Prof. Giulia Barella
SG 203B (3 Units)

The second two weeks of the program are taught by an experienced restorer, a graduate of the ISCR restoration school, who specializes in ceramics restoration and conservation. In the lectures and workshop students learn the theory and practice of restoring archaeological pottery, working on archaeological materials on loan from the Soprintendenza Archeologia, Belle Arti e Paesaggio dell’ Abruzzo – Department Of National Heritage and Cultural Activities of the Abruzzo Region. Under the close supervision of their instructor, students clean, restore and document the pottery. In the workshop students learn the following skills: various methods of cleaning ceramic sherds, the reassembly of pottery from surviving sherds, in-filling gaps left in the pottery after reassembly, the aesthetic treatment of the infilling for display and how to document the restoration procedure.

2018 Analysis of Pottery Sherds

Finds from Domus in Via Primo Maggio, Bevagna

Program C : Historical Book Binding, Structure and Preservation of Books

San Gemini Preservation Studies 2020
Session 1: June 1 – June 26 (4 weeks)
Location: San Gemini, Italy

Program Information

This program aims to teach the craft of traditional bookbinding, preservation and preventive conservation approach and methods, along with an overview of the history of book making.  This course views books as material structures holding cultural memories and as telling cultural objects in themselves. The program is organized in two courses, both of which involve classroom lectures and practical workshops.

The program is aimed at two types of students: those planning to become book conservators, and those requiring better knowledge about the care of books and bound material in libraries, archives or museums. For those planning a career as book conservators, this is a sound introduction and foundation for further education. Those planning to manage book collections or archives will acquire skills in analyzing the nature of bound material, understanding the state of conservation, and best practices in handling, storage and conservation of library and archival materials.

Students of the following subjects will find this program useful: book binding, book conservation and restoration, library science, library management, archival sciences, management of rare book collections, bookbinding, book design, anthropology and history of technology.

Students participating in this program are required to take part in both (SG204A and SG204B) courses and field projects in the program. This program is designed to be complementary to the Paper Restoration Program in Session 2; students looking for a complete introduction to the field of book restoration should consider taking both programs.

Field Projects Associated with this Program

  • Historic Archives of the Dioceses of Terni, Narni and Amelia

  • San Gemini Historic Archives Restoration Project

  • San Gemini Historic Archives Digitization Project


Introduction to the History and Craft of Book Bindings

Course 1
Instructor Nikolas Sarris
SG 204A (3 Units)

This course introduces students to the history and evolution of Western book-making, from the codex, a completely handmade object, to modern, highly industrialized book-making processes. The course also introduces students to the craft of traditional book making: the materials, the tools, the sewing structures and the assembly process of the various elements. In the workshop students craft four book facsimiles based on historical bookbinding methods: 1) the unsupported sewing structure (Islamic style); 2) the Western medieval style binding; 3) the limp parchment binding; and 4) the modern case binding.


Introduction to the Preservation and Preventive Conservation of Books

Course 2
Instructor Marco Di Bella
SG 204B (3 Units)

This second course focuses on the preservation and preventive conservation of bound material from libraries and archives. It gives an overview of the field including the various agents and processes of deterioration, the methods of preventive conservation (such as handling best practices and environmental controls) and collection care (such as dusting and box-making). In the workshop students implement conservative, non-invasive measures on original material from the Diocese Archives of the City of Terni (containing documents dating back to the 14th century). This work includes: analyzing the state of conservation of bound material and the storage conditions and procedures, producing conservation assessment records for individual items, creating custom protective containers for the archival material and other preventive measures.

Past Book Binding Workshops:

Program D : Paper Restoration in Books and Archival Documents

San Gemini Preservation Studies 2020
Session 2: July 13 – August 7 (4 weeks)
Location: San Gemini, Italy

Program Information

This program aims to introduce students to the field of paper restoration and conservation in books and archival documents. The program involves both lectures in the classroom and practical workshops that impart theoretical knowledge and practical skills in the field. The program is made up of two courses.

Students of the following subjects would find this program useful: book and paper conservation and restoration, art restoration, library science, library management, archival sciences, management of rare book collections, bookbinding, anthropology and history of technology.

Students participating in this program are required to take part in all courses and field projects in the program.

This program compliments Program C, Book Binding, in Session 1; students should consider taking both programs.

Field Projects Associated with this Program

  • Historic Archives of the Dioceses of Terni, Narni and Amelia

  • San Gemini Historic Archives Restoration

  • San Gemini Historic Archives Digitization


Restoration and Conservation of Paper Media

Course 1
Instructor Irene Zanella
SG 206A (3 Units)

This lecture course offers an overview of the history of paper and of bookmaking technology, and the various processes used in the restoration of books and paper. Students learn the following: the material nature and the various typologies of paper (both traditional and new), inks, writing, printing processes, the structure of bindings, the various agents and processes of deterioration and how they impact both paper and book bindings and the various methods of conservation and restoration to counteract them.


Paper Restoration Workshop

Course 2
Instructor Irene Zanella
SG 206B (3 Units)

The second course is a workshop where students work on printed paper and original manuscript material from local historic archives (16th to 19th centuries), and learn the following skills: dry cleaning paper, washing and cleaning with solvents, mending tears in paper, infilling loses, lining weak paper structures, deacidification, flattening and proper long-term conservation of archival materials. The workshop also includes work on the digitization of the San Gemini Historic Archives.

Photo Galleries: Paper Restoration

Program E : Traditional Painting Materials, Methods and Restoration Issues

San Gemini Preservation Studies 2020
Session 2: July 13 – August 7 (4 weeks)
Location: San Gemini, Italy

Program Information

This program aims to provide important background knowledge and skills in the field of traditional painting techniques and materials both in a theoretical and practical manner. It is aimed at people studying art restoration and conservation, art history, painting, anthropology and museum studies. The program includes three courses.

Students participating in this program are required to take part in all three courses in the program.

Note: The traditional painting workshop, unlike other workshops in our program, does not involve any formal material restoration work, nevertheless all the knowledge and experience learned in this workshop is fundamental for anyone planning to become a paintings restorer. The other two courses in this program deal extensively with various aspects of restoration.


Traditional Materials, Methods of Painting and Art Restoration Issues

Course 1
Instructor Prof. Nikolas Vakalis
SG 208A (2 Units)

This lecture course examines the materials and techniques used in Italian painting during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, including how and why materials weather and age over time and what different approaches there are to their conservation and restoration.


Restoration: Theory, Ethics and Issues

Course 3
Instructor Max Cardillo
SG207 (2 units)

Going beyond the material aspects of restoration, these lecture/discussion classes examine the various social goals, motivations, approaches, and ethical and philosophical issues that guide the complex process of preserving our cultural heritage. The philosophical differences between the Italian restoration approach and the techniques used in the Anglo-Saxon world are part of this course.


Traditional Painting Workshop

Course 2
Instructor Prof. Nikolas Vakalis
SG 208B (2 Units)

Students create a series of paintings using traditional materials and methods as prescribed by Cennino Cennini in The Craftsman’s Handbook, written in 1398. The focus of this course is on materials and techniques, it is not an “art” class. Students work with the following techniques: renaissance fresco, sgraffito, tempera painting on wood boards, gilding, and oil painting on canvas.


Past Traditional Painting Methods Workshops:


Program F : Carsulae Roman Baths Project (Architectural & Structural Survey)

San Gemini Preservation Studies 2020
Session 2: July 13 – August 7 (4 weeks)
Location: San Gemini, Carsulae
, Italy

Program Information

One goal of the project is to record and analyze the building structures that have emerged at the excavation of the Public Bath in the ancient Roman city of Carsulae both from a structural and architectonic point of view. The second goal is to study the bath excavation site in relation to the entire present-day archaeological park and plan a new access for visitors.

Primarily a research work program, this project will not consist of a set of structured lectures and most field activities will be focused on the research, design, and the documentation process. There will be a series of lectures and visits focused on specific subjects that are relevant to the research work being done. The work will not involve any archaeological excavation, although the student-researchers will have access to the archaeological excavation to observe and document the structures.

This project is open to a small group of graduate student-researchers that have the specific skills necessary for the research. Preference is given to students that can read Italian and who are interested in incorporating the summer research into longer-term work, such as thesis research.

Requirement for Student Researchers (7 Students)

  • 2  architecture students with good drawing and cad skills, including AutoCAD and Rhino

  • 2  students (architecture or art History) familiar with in Roman Architectural History that can  read and do research from Italian sources

  • 1 Student familiar with handling point clouds and interface to AutoCAD

  • 1 Student familiar with Photo modeling software preferably Photoscan , ReCap or 3DF Zephyr  (drone operation would be a plus)

  • 1 Student familiar with GIS and archaeological data bases

  • Work will be structured 5 days a week  from 10:30 AM to 7:30 PM with a 2 hour lunch break.

Note: Notre Dame University Students should contact Prof. Steven Semes

Research Activities Season 2019

Core: Academic staff

Max Cardillo, Architect SGPS
Steve Semes, Architect Head of Graduate Historic Preservation program at UND
Andrew Wilkinson, Archeologist SGPS

Consulting Academic Staff:

Nikolas Vakalis, Conservator SGPS
Jane Whitehead, Archeologist Director of Excavation AVPSSG
Elisabeth Collantoni, Archaelogist UR
Marco Corradi, Engineer UP
Sandro Corradi, Engineer Head of Terni City Planning

Collaborating organizations

AVPSSG: Associazione per la Valorizazione del Patrimonio Storico San Gemini
SGPS: San Gemini Preservation Studies (part of IIRPS)
IIRPS: International Institute for Restoration and Preservation Studies
UR: University of Rochester
UND: University of Notre Dame
SAU: Soprintendenza Archeologica  dell’Umbria
POCT: Planning Office of City of Terni
UP: Universita degi Studi di Perugia facolta di Ingegneria Civile

Outline of Research Work

1) Documentation

Study and document the existing conditions of the archaeological site and the building elements that have so far been revealed by the excavation. Study and evaluate different surveying and imaging technologies to document and present the structures in the archaeological site (Participants: SGPS, UND, UP):

a) Traditional architectural drawing methods

b) 3D laser scanning (already scanned in 2016)

c) 3D photo modeling (already done in 2016, but probably new update will be done in 2018)

d) produce plans, sections and elevations of the site

e) produce 3D model of existing site

2) Structural and Typology Study

Structural analysis of the ruins in order to make various hypothetical reconstructions of the original architecture of the baths (Participants: SGPS, UND, UP):

a) structural analysis of the existing building structures

b) typological study of roman bath buildings ( by period and Region)

c) hypothetical reconstructions of building structures

d) 3D virtual models of the hipothetical reconstructions

3) Planning Study

Planning study for the Carsulae Archaeological Park. (Participants: SGPS, UND, UP, UR, POCT):

a) planning and architectural study of possible ways to present the bath excavation site to the public :

  • Design of temporary viewing platform to be built in 2018 – 2019 period

  • Design for long term arrangement of a viewing path

b) planning study on of the entire Carsulae Archaeological Park in order to create a better  experience for visitors.

  • new entrance

  • logical entry and visitor paths

Preliminary Publication of 2018 Research Work

The following is a preliminary publication of the research work done so far by the San Gemini Preservation Studies program in July 2018, studying the archaeological site of the public baths in the ancient Roman city of Carsuale.  We are publishing this ongoing study in order to engage in the discussion the many people involved and interested in this project. The project still needs elaboration and completion. In the summer of 2019 we plan to continue work on this study.


Visitation Platform

Bath Complex – Reconstruction

Bath Complex – Survey

Bath Complex – Wall Types 1

Bath Complex – Wall Types 2

Master Plan – Carsulae

Master Plan: Via Flaminia – San Gemini / Acquasparta

Intersession Preservation Tour: Siena, Florence and Rome

San Gemini Preservation Studies 2020
Intersession: June 28 thru July 7 (10 days)
Locations: Siena, Florence and Rome

Program Information

A ten-day trip visiting Siena, Florence and Rome, the field trip includes guided visits to places of cultural interest, reviews of the urban structure and historical development of each town, and specialized visits to places of interest to restorers, such as research laboratories and active sites of restoration. Students will also have time do visits on their own. The unique aspect of this trip is the access to conservation centers and restoration sites that would be difficult or impossible to visit independently.

The trip is an intensive schedule of visits and tours that can include a lot of walking and standing. Transportation is for the most part on public transport, including buses and trains, in order to keep costs down.

This trip is optional and not part of regular programs. It is open to students participating in Sessions I and II and students must enroll and pay for this program separately.

IIRPS Field Trip Rome S. Ivo.jpg


Siena 2 nights

Florence 3 nights

Rome 4 nights

The program fee includes:

  • academic costs for the equivalent of 1 unit

  • transportation

  • hotels and breakfast

  • museum tickets when part of organized academic tours

SGPS Programs:

Siena, Florence and Rome


An important part of our program in Italy is a ten-day trip to Siena, Florence and Rome. This field trip offers a rare opportunity to participate in specialized guided tours in the area of preservation.  We visit the best Italian research and restoration laboratories in the field of restoration – such as the Vatican Laboratories, the Opificio delle Pietre Dure (OPD) in Florence and the Superior Institute for Conservation and Restoration (ISCR) in Rome. Participants also visit some of the most interesting active restoration sites ongoing in these cities. The tours include guided visits by experts to places of general cultural interest and free time for participants to explore on their own. 

What is most exceptional about this tour is that it provides access to restoration centers and restoration sites, which would be difficult or impossible to visit independently.

Trips to Montepulciano and Pienza (on the way to Siena) are usually part of the field trip, schedule permitting.

For a more detailed description, please read the Intersession Preservation Tour FT1 Syllabus

 Sites usually visited during field trip


Church of San Biaggio, Duomo, Piazza Grande, Palazzo Crociani


Duomo, Piazza Pιο II, Palazzo Piccolomini


Palazzo Pubblico, Il Campo, Duomo, Baptistery and Crypt of the Duomo, Museum of the Opera del Duomo, Oratorio e Μuseo della Contrada, Santa Maria della Scala


Opificio Delle Pietre Dure, Dome of Santa Maria del Fiore, Church of San Lorenzo, Lauretian Library, Medici Chapels, Baptistery of San Giovanni, San Miniato al Monte, Fortezza da Basso, Cappella Brancacci, Convento di San Marco


Istituto Superiore per la Conservazione e il Restauro, Roman Forum, Santa Maria Antiqua, Colosseum, San Clemente, Tempietto di Bramante a San Pietro in Montorio, Villa Farnesina, Palazzo Farnese, Palazzo della Cancelleria, Chiostro di Bramante, San Luigi dei Francesi, Campidoglio, Pantheon, stone restoration laboratories in Vatican and restoration site in the Vatican Gardens, Vatican Museums


Town of San Gemini

San Gemini is a beautiful, small hill town in Umbria along the ancient Roman road, the Via Flaminia. It is located a few kilometers north of Terni and has a population of about five thousand. Located between Rome and Florence, it is a convenient base for travel in central Italy. Rome can be reached in one hour and a half; other cities such as Perugia, Spoleto, Todi, Assisi, and Orvieto are even closer. Situated within easy reach of a wealth of cultural resources (museums, libraries, and many of the world’s treasures of art and architecture), San Gemini is a friendly town where students can easily meet local people and enjoy life in the Italian countryside.

It was first settled as an agricultural suburb of Carsulae in the 1st century along the Via Flaminia. This ancient settlement may have been called Casventium. During the Middle Ages, as Carsulae was abandoned, Casventum grew to become a small city and, eventually, a fortified border outpost. Its name was changed to San Gemini and there are various theories as to why this happened. The official story is that a Syrian monk named Gemine (Yamin) stopped to preach there, and then made his home in the town, thus inspiring the name change. Another theory is that it derives from a local popular cult of the twin saints Cosma and Damian.

San Gemini has been inhabited, without interruption, since ancient Roman times. It reached maximum expansion in pre-industrial times (the 13th century) and then stagnated until the 20th century. The city started to grow again in the 1930’s and has now reached a population of five thousand. Since the Second World War, the city has become a bedroom community for the city of Terni. Most of the growth that has happened since 1960 is outside the medieval perimeter. Although the population of the historic center has decreased by nearly ten percent, it still remains the civic and social center of the city.

Across Italy, San Gemini is mostly known for “Sangemini” natural mineral water. Both the spring and the bottling plant are located outside the populated center, near the ancient city of Carsulae.

Umbria Region

Umbria is one of the most interesting regions in central Italy. It is located on the inland side of the regions of Tuscany and Lazio and offers a scenic, mountainous landscape. Umbria has a very rich historical and cultural heritage.  The modern territory covers areas originally inhabited by the Umbrians, an old Italic people, and the Etruscans. It became part of the heartland of the Roman Empire and, in the late middle ages, was part of the vibrant city-state movement that brought about the Renaissance.

It’s a region where, from an historic and artistic point of view, some of the most interesting places in Italy are found: Perugia, Assisi, Spoleto, Todi, Gubbio and Orvieto. San Gemini is located in southern Umbria, between the cities of Todi and Terni.  From San Gemini it is possible to take day trips to most places in Umbria.


Is the administrative center of the region Umbria is a lively university town and one of the most interesting “Medieval” cities in Central Italy. Its origins go back to ancient Etruscan and Umbrian settlement at the beginning of the 1st millennium BC. though it is now characterized by its medieval city center.

Getting there from San Gemini by public transports:

1) FCU railway from San Gemini Rail station to Sant’Anna Station in Perugia be ware tha the first stop in Perugia is at Ponte San Giovanni ( do not get off there) then the train goes backwards towards Sant’Anna station. This is the fastest and cheapest way to get to Perugia. From the Sant’Anna station you can walk or take the escalator to the center. (about 50 minutes on train)

2) Take bus to Terni rail station there take the FS train to Perugia Fontivegge (Stazione Centrale). From there take city bus or monorail up to the historic center. (about 2 1/2 hrs. travel time)

Sites to see in Perugia:

Palazzo dei Priori (city hall)

Galleria Nazionale ***

Colleggio del Cambio ( frescos by Perugino) ***

Sala dei Notari **

Corso Vannucci & Piazza IV Novembre with the Fontana Maggiore with sculptures of Nicola and Giovanni Pisano ***

Archaeological Museum at San Domenico **

Church of Sant’Angelo and the city gate of Sant’Angelo **

Rocca Paolina, Piazza Italia and Giardini Carducci**

Epogeo dei Volumni – Etruscan funerary crypt (outskirts of city – take bus)**

Museo Capitolare del Duomo di San Lorenzo**

Church of San Domenico *

Capella di San Severo*

Church of San Pietro and Porta San Pietro*

Arco Etrusco and Etruscan city walls*

Duomo of San Lorenzo

Via dell’Acquedotto

for other attractions consult guide books

In summer Perugia hosts many of the concerts of Umbria Jazz.

Please consult schedules of sites and transportation before making travel plans.


After Rome, Assisi is the most important place of religious pilgrimage in Italy. It is the home town of Saint Francis the patron Saint of Italy. From an artistic point of view it holds some of the best examples of late medieval art among which the work of Giotto and Cimabue.

Getting there from San Gemini by public transportation: (about 2hrs travel time)

From SG take bus to the Terni rail station and there take FS train or regional bus line going to Assisi. From the Assisi train station take city bus that takes you to Piazza dell’Unita d’Italia. From there start your walking tour.

Sites to visit:

Basilica of San Francis (Upper and Lower Church)***

Piazza del Comune **

Roman Forum excavation **

Temple of Minerva**

Church if Santa Maria degli Angeli and the Porzuncola ( in the valley near rail station)**

Churl of Santa Chiara *

Duomo of San Ruffino and archaeological excavation of original church *

Rocca Maggiore (castle) great views from outer tower*

Basilica di San Pietro*

Abbei of San Damiano (outskirt of city)*


An ancient Etruscan city facing the Tiber valley it is known for its iconic Duomo, relics, interesting museums and its light white wine.

Getting there from San Gemini with public transit (2-3 Hrs) :

From SG take bus to Terni train station there take any FS train to Orte. (Most trains to Rome stop in Orte). From Orte  take a train to Orvieto which is not far however the train connections are not great and it can take as long as 3 hrs to get there. This is a case were chartering a van from SG can make sense.

Sites to visit in Orvieto:

Duomo and San Brizio Chapel ***

Museo dell’Opera del Duomo**

Museo Archeologico Nazzionale **

Museo Claudio Faina (classical ceramics collection)**

Tour of Subterranean Orvieto**

Etruscan Necropolis of the Crocifisso del Tufo **

Pozzo di San Patrizzio*

Church of San Giovenale**

Piazza della Republica and  the Church of Sant”Andrea**

Palazzo del Capitano

Fortezza Albornoz

Other Places of Interest in Umbria